You, The Narrator – Self-Help

Flickr / Sophia Louise
Flickr / Sophia Louise

Lorrie Moore writes brilliantly in the second person in Self-Help, her first collection of short stories. Her style and tone differ markedly from Jay McInerny in Bright Lights, Big City, even though both use the second person, in large part because she uses the imperative mood.

Do Verbs Have Moods?

English verbs have four moods: indicative, imperative, subjunctive and infinitive. Mood is the form of the verb that shows the mode or manner in which a thought is regarded (assertion, denial, command, doubt and so on) .

Imperative expresses command, prohibition, entreaty, or advice [1.]:

Don’t smoke in this building.
Be careful!
Don’t drown that puppy!

McInerny’s oft-quoted opening in Bright Lights, Big City is in the indicative mood. “You are not the kind of guy who would be at a place like this at this time of morning. But here you are, and you cannot say the terrain is entirely unfamiliar, though the details are fuzzy.”

Moore’s How to Be an Other Woman

Compare Moore’s opening line in “How to Be an Other Woman”: “Meet in expensive beige raincoats, on a pea-soupy night. Like a detective movie. First, stand in front of Florsheim’s Fifty-seventh Street window, press your face close to the glass, watch the fake velvet Hummels inside revolving around the wing tips; some white shoes, like your father wears, are propped up with garlands on a small mound of chemical snow. All the stores have closed. You can see your breath on the glass. Draw a peace sign. You are waiting for a bus.”

Moore intermingles her use of the imperative with the indicative form to make assertions. The stores have closed. You can see your breath on the glass. You are waiting for a bus.

McInerny is telling us about You. Moore is telling You what to do.

From another scene in the story, where she advances the story using both the indicative and, imaginatively, the imperative.


“Who is he?” says your mom, later, in the kitchen after you’ve washed the dishes.

“He’s a systems analyst.”

“What do they do?”

“Oh … they get married a lot. They’re usually always married.”

“Charlene, are you having an affair with a married man?”

“Ma, do you have to put it that way?”

“You are asking for big trouble,” she says, slowly, and resumes polishing silver with a vehement energy.

Wonder why she always polishes the silver after meals.

Lean against the refrigerator and play with the magnets.

Say, softly, carefully: “I know, Mother, it’s not something you would do.”

She looks up at you, her mouth trembling, pieces of her brown-gray hair dangling in her salty eyes, pink silverware cream caking onto her hands, onto her wedding ring. She stops, puts a spoon down, looks away and then hopelessly back at you, like a very young girl, and, shaking her head, bursts into tears.

“I missed you,” he practically shouts, ebullient and adolescent, pacing about the living room with a sort of bounce, like a child who is up way past his bedtime and wants to ask a question. “What did you do at home?” He rubs your neck.

Both McInerny and Moore use the second person. Yet Moore’s decision to use the imperative changes the tenor of the story. Through it, Moore can play with the trope of the Other Woman and highlight the repetitive, habitual nature of a woman dating an adulterer. She uses the article “an” in the title, not “the.” This is a story for any woman who undervalues her self and her life. A how-to manual of sorts for every woman.

Do you think Moore’s use of the imperative works? How might you incorporate the imperative into your writing?

You, The Narrator – Bright Lights, Big City

A black and white photo of a city that is blurred.

As part of the point of view (POV) series, we will review the second-person point of view.

Second-person POV uses the pronoun You. You can be either singular or plural and is used most frequently in American publishing in the self-help and cookbook genres. When authors use you instead of I or a third-person pronoun, you can have the effect of making the reader become the main character.

The second-person point of view has another cool effect: The narrator is also the reader or the person the narrator is telling the story to (at least I think so. What do you think?).

Whether that works or not rests with the skill of the author.

To observe the differences between third- and second-person narration, we’ll compare Ernest Hemingway and Jay McInerny.

Ernest Hemingway’s Jake Barnes

Jay McInenry references The Sun Also Rises by Ernest Hemingway in his 1984 novel Bright Lights, Big City with the following epigraph:

“How did you go bankrupt?” Bill asked.

“Two ways,” Mike said. “Gradually and then suddenly.”

All sorts of associations come to mind with this quotation. Hemingway’s first novel has been called the chronicle of The Lost Generation but one in which he claims his characters are survivors. Certainly the story of Jake Barnes is one of loss, dissipation and sadness. The carnage of WWI – the war to end all wars – lives around the edges of the story and in the body of Jake Barnes. He has had his penis – though not his testicles – shot off. With testes intact Jake’s body continues to produce masculinizing testosterone but no erection.

Jake seeks the love of Lady Brett Ashley. But he cannot accept the permanence of his injury nor that Brett cannot accept it, either. His inability to embrace his body as it is after war becomes the driving flaw of the story. Jake lives in an illusion.

Hemingway, by choosing third-person narration, seemed uninterested in whether the reader should want to be Jake.

Who would? Rather he wanted to speak about an entire generation of young men and women deformed by a war that need not have been fought, that everyone thought would never be fought and that render the mores of pre-WW1 Europe and America worthless.

Jay McInerny’s You

Of course, McInerny knew all this when he wrote Bright Lights, Big City. He might have employed the third person point of view just as Hemingway did. But McInerny, I think, was after another experience. He understood the lifestyle he himself had been living – working at The New Yorker and doing numerous lines of cocaine and being married to a model – was a lifestyle readers might want to experience.

Hence the use of the pronoun you. You snort the cocaine. You work for a persnickety ogress in Factual Verification in the hopes to one day write for Fiction. You tell no one your model wife has left you. You prefer to ignore reality, too.

In the following scene, McInerny describes You at his job at a famous NY magazine.

Already you feel a sense of nostalgia as you walk down the narrow halls past all the closed doors. You remember how you felt when you passed this way for your first interview, how the bland seediness of the hallway only increased your apprehension of grandeur. You thought of yourself in the third person: He arrived for his interview in a navy-blue blazer. He was interviewed for a position in the Department of Factual Verification, a job which seemed even then to be singularly unsuited to his flamboyant temperament. But he was not to languish long among the facts.

Each point of view has strengths and weaknesses. Would The Sun Also Rises have worked in using second person? I think not.

You have no penis. Nope. Not going to work.

Conversely, would Bright Lights, Big City work using a first- or third-person narration? Again, no. Had McInerny deployed either of those POVs, I think our narrator as a drug-addled, spoiled idiot would have tired us , and quickly, too.

Does You, The Narrator Work?

It does for me in Bright Lights, Big City.

I have had periods in my life when I did not languish long among the facts, especially when what has been true of the world and what I have wanted to be true of the world are a chasm’s-width apart. So I think you works as a narration tool if the writer can create a certain degree of empathy or affinity in the narrator. Plus it’s cool to imagine working for The New Yorker.

You is tricky. But there are no recipes in writing. As writers we slip into a boat, push away from the shore and begin to row to another shore we cannot even imagine, sometimes. We have to write, rewrite and maybe even start from the beginning, all over again.

Use the second-person point of view in your own work. Take a paragraph you’ve written in another point of view and rewrite in the second person. What happens? Does it work?

What are the strengths and weaknesses of second-person point of view?

Point of View in Writing

A man's hands are on the handlebars of a bicycle. as we look down the street from his point-of-view
photo by Will White

Point-of-View (POV) is a grammatical position through which you choose to tell a story. I say grammatical as a way to distinguish the different types of POVs.

A POV uses first, second or third person as a narrative structure. This assumes you will write a rather traditional work. Experimental writing may attempt to dispense with POV, which is to say the author has no narrative structure per se. They may still write using I/You/They, but those pronouns don’t function as part of the story’s scaffolding, but then again they just might. This is why experimental literature can be tricky with regard to POV.

So we will focus on more traditional uses of POV.

First person singular uses I.

First person plural uses We.

Second person singular or plural uses You.

Third person singular uses He/She.

Third person singular uses They.

Within third person there is third-person close and third-person omniscient.

Each structure has strengths and weaknesses. Each structure will allow you certain insights into your characters and your narrator (if you have one), but not others.

A very important reminder: the use of I, you or he/she does not necessarily make a work first-, second- or third-person POV. You may have to read for many paragraphs to determine the narrative structure. As a writer you can use this to your advantage.

The first-person singular allows you to provide all manner of insights and thoughts of your narrator. Holden Caufield narrates “The Catcher in the Rye.” We know what he thinks and feels, and that’s it.

Attempts to describes the internal thoughts of other characters fails as a first-person POV. I cannot know another person’s thoughts unless they choose to share them with me.

The first person plural, though rarely used, can place an individual narrator within a larger group of family, friends or community. Julia Otsuka uses it well in her novel, The Buddha in the Attic as does Joan Chase in During the Reign the Queen of Persia.

I could have written “I will be sharing these texts with you in the next few weeks.” But I didn’t. I chose to use the first-person plural instead. What changes when I use we instead of I? How might that impact your writing?

Second-person singular and plural is a fascinating and unique strategy through which to structure your work. Second-person works have been around a long time. Both Leo Tolstoy and Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote short stories using the second person. More contemporary works include Self-Help by Lorrie Moore and Bright Lights, Big City by Jay McInerny.

You swear you won’t ever write a story using second person. But  you have to admit there are distinct advantages to it. Whether it’s writing one of the earliest forms of you-are-there reporting in Sebastopol in December (Tolstoy), a very chilling tale in The Haunted Mind (Hawthorne) or the very distinct distance between what we believe to be true about ourselves and what is actually true (Moore and McInerny), the second person intrigues you. The trick is knowing how to best take advantage of its effects.

Third-person close. Third person close can almost pass as first person. The intent of third person close is to follow one particular character and no other. The story is told from that character’s perspective. J.K. Rowling did it to great effect in Harry Potter. Everything is told from his perspective using third person.

Third-person omniscient. Used in romance and thriller genres. Peruse the web and you’ll find writing gurus who tell you, “don’t get into the head of more than one character in any scene.” Whatever.

Know the rule then break it as you need to. The why determines the how in writing. You might decide to have each paragraph in one chapter told from a different character’s point-of-view. Excellent. I’m happy to read on, as long as the why makes it worth my while.

The suspension of disbelief is overrated, I think. Of course it’s a construct! I will happily read any POV, even several in the same paragraph (and yes, we’ll be talking about how Mohsin Hamid does this in How to Get Filthy Rich in Asia).What I value more as a reader is a writer’s execution. I say go for it.

Think about some of your favorite works of literature. Which POV (or POVs) did they use? How might you use some of this in your own writing?

Gone Reading

two beach chairs at dusk along a shoreline

I work every day except for two or three months of vacation when I travel and generally don’t work at all. I read very little during the year, and when I go away I take a big valise full of books, books that I didn’t have time to read. – Simone de Beauvoir

I will be taking a two-week scheduled break to spend time with family, friends,  gorge on tomatoes, revel in the last weeks of summer and, like de Beauvoir, read.

The newsletter returns Thursday, September 10 with a multi-part series on point-of-view. This series will cover the usual first- and third-person omniscient and close points-of-view plus the less used first-person plural and second-person points-of-view. Choosing a point-of-view is one of the most important decisions a writer can make. I look forward to sharing with you excerpts from some great books and reading your feedback on this exciting series.

Please relish these last weeks of summer.